2. Significant Accounting Policies

Basis of preparation

The Group and Company financial statements have been prepared and approved by the Directors under the historical cost convention, except for the revaluation of certain financial instruments, in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards ("IFRS") as adopted by the European Union ("adopted IFRSs") and the Companies Act 2006 as applicable to companies reporting under IFRS. They have also been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the AIM Rules.

Going concern

An analysis of the factors likely to impact on the Group's future business activities, performance and strategy are set out in the Chief Executive's Review and Financial Review. The principal risks and uncertainties facing the Group are set out in the Directors' Report.

For the purposes of their assessment of the appropriateness of the preparation of the Group's accounts on a going concern basis, the Directors have considered the current cash position and forecasts of future trading including working capital and investment requirements.

During the year the Group met its day-to-day general corporate and working capital requirements through existing cash resources. At 30th June 2014 the Group had cash on hand of £3.8m (30th June 2013 — £3.7m).

Overall, the Directors believe the Group is well placed to manage its business risks successfully despite the current uncertain economic outlook. The Group's forecasts and projections, taking account of reasonable possible changes in trading performance, show that the Group should have sufficient cash resources to meet its requirements for at least the next 12 months. Accordingly, the adoption of the going concern basis in preparing the financial statements remains appropriate.

Basis of consolidation

The consolidated financial statements incorporate the financial statements of the Company and entities controlled by the Company (its subsidiaries) made up to 30th June each year. Control is achieved where the Company has the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an investee entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities.

The results of subsidiaries acquired or disposed of during the year are included in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income from the effective date of acquisition or up to the effective date of disposal, as appropriate.

Where necessary, adjustments are made to the financial statements of subsidiaries to bring the accounting policies used into line with those used by the Group.

All intra-Group transactions, balances, income and expenses are eliminated on consolidation.

Exceptional and other items

Exceptional items are material items of income or expense which, because of their nature and the expected frequency of the events giving rise to them, merit separate disclosure.

Other items relate to the amortisation of acquired intangible assets and fair value movements on foreign exchange hedging.

The separate presentation of exceptional and other items enables the users of the accounts to better understand the elements of financial performance during the year and hence to better assess trends in that financial performance.

Goodwill

Goodwill arising on consolidation represents the excess of the cost of acquisition over the Group's interest in the fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities of a subsidiary, associate or jointly controlled entity at the date of acquisition. Goodwill is initially recognised as an asset at cost and is subsequently measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. Goodwill which is recognised as an asset is reviewed for impairment at least annually. Any impairment is recognised immediately in comprehensive income and is not subsequently reversed.

For the purpose of impairment testing, goodwill is allocated to each of the Group's cash-generating units ("CGUs") expected to benefit from the synergies of the combination. CGUs to which goodwill has been allocated are tested for impairment annually, or more frequently when there is an indication that the CGU may be impaired. If the recoverable amount of the CGU is less than its carrying amount, the impairment loss is allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the unit and then to the other assets of the CGU pro rata on the basis of the carrying amount of each asset in the CGU. An impairment loss recognised for goodwill is not reversed in a subsequent period.

On disposal of a subsidiary, associate or jointly controlled entity, the attributable amount of goodwill is included in the determination of the profit or loss on disposal.

Intangible assets

The Group recognises intangible assets at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses. Intangible assets arise both as a result of applying IFRS 3 which requires the separate recognition of intangible assets from goodwill on all business combinations from 1st January 2004, and from the purchase of software (that is separable from any associated hardware), and development machinery and from research and development (see below).

Intangible assets are amortised on a straight-line basis over their useful economic lives as follows:

Customer relationships10 years
Brands15 years
SoftwareEstimated useful life, typically 2-4 years
New product development costsEstimated economic life, normally 4–7 years

Research and development costs

Expenditure on research activities, undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding, is recognised as an expense in the year in which it is incurred.

An internally generated intangible asset arising from the Group's new product development is recognised only if all of the following conditions are met:

  • an asset is created that can be identified (such as a new pharmaceutical product);
  • it is probable that the asset created will generate future economic benefits; and
  • the development cost of the asset can be measured reliably.

Internally generated intangible assets are amortised on a straight-line basis over their estimated economic lives. Where no internally generated intangible asset can be recognised, development expenditure is recognised as an expense in the year in which it is incurred.

Revenue recognition

Revenue is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable and represents amounts receivable for goods and services provided in the normal course of business, net of discounts, VAT and other sales related taxes.

Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised when the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred which is generally when goods are delivered.

Income received in relation to long-term service contracts is deferred and subsequently recognised over the life of the relevant contracts. Further details are contained in note 21.

Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable, which is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash receipts through the expected life of the financial asset to that asset's net carrying value.

Leasing

Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

The Group as lessee

Rentals payable under operating leases are charged to income on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease.

Retirement benefit costs

Payments to defined contribution retirement benefit schemes are charged as an expense as they fall due. Payments made to state-managed retirement benefit schemes are dealt with as payments to defined contribution schemes where the Group's obligations under the schemes are equivalent to those arising in a defined contribution retirement benefit scheme.

Foreign currencies

In preparing the financial statements of the individual companies, transactions in currencies other than the entity's functional currency (foreign currencies) are recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing on the dates of the transactions. At each balance sheet date, monetary assets and liabilities that are denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the rates prevailing on the balance sheet date. Non-monetary items carried at fair value that are denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the rates prevailing at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are not retranslated.

Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items, and on the retranslation of monetary items, are included in comprehensive income for the year.

Segment reporting

An operating segment is a component of the Group that engages in business activities from which it may earn revenues and incur expenses, including revenues and expenses that relate to transaction with any of the Group's other components. An operating segment's operating results are reviewed regularly by the Chief Executive Officer to make decisions about resources to be allocated to the segment and assess its performance, and for which discrete financial information is available.

Inventories

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost comprises direct materials and where applicable, direct labour costs and those overheads that have been incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Cost is calculated using the first-in, first-out principle. Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price less all estimated costs of completion and costs to be incurred in marketing, selling and distribution.

Dividends

Dividends paid are recognised within the Statement of Changes in Equity only when an obligation to pay the dividend arises prior to the year end.

Share-based payments

The Group issues equity-settled share-based payments to certain employees. Equity-settled share-based payments are measured at fair value (excluding the effect of non market-based vesting conditions) at the date of grant. The fair value determined at the grant date of such equity-settled share-based payments is expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period, based on the Group's estimate of shares that will eventually vest and adjusted for the effect of non market-based vesting conditions (with a corresponding movement in equity).

Fair value is measured by use of the Black–Scholes model. The expected life used in the model has been adjusted, based on management's best estimate, for the effects of non-transferability, exercise restrictions, and behavioural considerations.

The fair value of the shares issued under the new Long Term Incentive Plan were valued on a discounted cash flow basis in conjunction with a third party valuation specialist.  

Taxation

The tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.

The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from net profit as reported in the statement of comprehensive income because it excludes items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and it further excludes items that are never taxable or deductible. The Group's liability for current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

Deferred tax is the tax expected to be payable or recoverable on differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit, and is accounted for using the balance sheet liability method. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences and deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilised. Such assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of other assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the tax profit nor the accounting profit.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each balance sheet date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax is calculated at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the liability is settled or the asset is realised. Deferred tax is charged or credited in the statement of comprehensive income, except when it relates to items charged or credited directly to equity, in which case the deferred tax is also dealt with in equity.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the Group intends to settle its current tax assets and liabilities on a net basis.

Property, plant and equipment

Land and buildings and other assets held for use in the production or supply of goods and services or for administrative purposes, fixtures and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and any recognised impairment loss.

Other than for land, which is not depreciated, depreciation is charged so as to write off the cost of assets, less their estimated residual value, over their estimated useful lives, as follows:

Straight-line

Freehold Buildings

50 years

Leasehold improvements

10 years

Plant and equipment

4 to 7 years

Office furniture and equipment

3 to 5 years

The gain or loss arising on the disposal or retirement of an asset is determined as the difference between the net sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and is recognised in the statement of comprehensive income as incurred.

Provisions

Provisions are recognised when the Group has a present obligation as a result of a past event, and it is probable that the Group will be required to settle that obligation. Provisions are measured at the Directors' best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the obligation outstanding at the balance sheet date, and are discounted to present value where the effect is material.

Impairment of tangible and intangible assets excluding goodwill

At each balance sheet date, the Group reviews the carrying amounts of its tangible and intangible assets to determine whether there is any indication that those assets have suffered an impairment loss. If any such indication exists, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated in order to determine the extent of the impairment loss (if any). Where the asset does not generate cash flows that are independent from other assets, the Group estimates the recoverable amount of the cash-generating unit (CGU) to which the asset belongs. An intangible asset with an indefinite useful life is tested for impairment annually and whenever there is an indication that the asset may be impaired.

Recoverable amount is the higher of fair value less costs to sell and value in use. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset for which the estimates of future cash flows have not been adjusted.

If the recoverable amount of an asset (CGU) is estimated to be less than its carrying amount, the carrying amount of the asset (CGU) is reduced to its recoverable amount. An impairment loss is recognised as an expense immediately.

Where an impairment loss subsequently reverses, the carrying amount of the asset (CGU) is increased to the revised estimate of its recoverable amount, but so that the increased carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset (CGU) in prior years. A reversal of an impairment loss is recognised as income immediately.

Financial instruments

Financial assets and financial liabilities are recognised in the Group's balance sheet when the Group becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

Trade receivables

Trade receivables are measured at initial recognition at fair value, and are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Appropriate allowances for estimated irrecoverable amounts are recognised in comprehensive income when there is objective evidence that the asset is impaired. The allowance recognised is measured as the difference between the asset's carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows discounted at the effective interest rate computed at initial recognition.

Investments

Investments in Group companies are stated at cost less provisions for impairment losses.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash on hand, deposits repayable on demand, and other short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to a known amount of cash and are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

Financial liabilities and equity

Financial liabilities and equity instruments are classified according to the substance of the contractual arrangements entered into. An equity instrument is any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of the Group after deducting all of its liabilities.

Trade payables

Trade payables are initially measured at fair value, and are subsequently measured at amortised cost, using the effective interest rate method.